Monday 10 May 2021

Mechanisms of COVID-19 Vaccine Induced Injuries/Deaths

By Maggie Zhou, PhD (genetics)

A study on UK government’s website, dated Apr 2021, conducted by the ISARIC4C consortium, found that among the hospitalized COVID patients who had ALREADY BEEN VACCINATED, the onset of symptoms is most commonly from the day of vaccination to 3 days after that.  The onset is 5x as frequent ON the day of the vaccination as the day BEFORE vaccination! [1]

The preferred mainstream explanation is blaming behavioural change – they assume that those who had been vaccinated shielded & isolated less.  Yet they have no evidence to back that up.  Crucially, “No one is suggesting there was a change of behaviour within care homes, except for inviting people in to carry out the vaccinations. However, care homes in every corner of the country saw outbreaks from December”, wrote a rebuttal published in the British Medical Journal.[2]

The other idea offered by some mainstream academics is that going to the vaccination centers itself may be a “super-spreader event” - but again, care homes didn’t fit that bill.

Also, even if these people did contract the virus on the vaccination day, why would more of them have symptom onset on that day and the 3 days immediately after, rather than the usual incubation period of 5 days?


FAR MORE LIKELY are the following mutually non-exclusive mechanisms:

1. The rebuttal in the BMJ mentioned above[2] pointed out that both Pfizer and AstraZeneca’s trials had shown white blood cell depletion in the first 3 days post vaccination.  The phenomenon is known for other vaccines as well, and there’s at least evidence in children that such transient white cell depletion results in susceptibility to viral infections.[3]  In this scenario, an infection previously kept in check by the immune system could become active when response to the vaccine depleted circulating white blood cells.

2. The mRNA and DNA vaccines use nanoparticles to enclose the nucleic acids.  There has been an accumulating number of studies that found that various types of nanoparticles can interfere with the function of our blood cells, and with the coagulation system, shifting the hemostatic balance, causing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), among other serious complications.[8,9]  Also, the mRNA vaccine nanoparticles contain PEG-lipid, and the the DNA vaccine nanoparticles contain polysorbate 80, both have been known to be allergenic and found responsible for anaphylactic reactions in the past.[10]

3. The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 alone, introduced intratracheally, as well as in in vitro experiments, has been shown to damage lung vascular endothelial cells by downregulating ACE2, and consequently inhibiting mitochondrial function, triggering reactive oxygen species production, increasing glycolysis, and extracellular acidification.[11,4]

4. On Dec 9, 2020, BEFORE vaccination rollouts in most countries, Dr. J. Patrick Whelan MD PhD, formally warned the FDA that, according to multiple lines of evidence, vaccines using SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (including mRNA and DNA vector vaccines) may cause microvascular injury to distant organs including the brain, heart, liver, and kidneys.[5]

He cited evidence that while “the coronavirus replicates almost exclusively in the septal capillary endothelial cells of the lungs and the nasopharynx”, “viral lysis and immune destruction of those cells releases viral capsid proteins (or pseudovirions) that travel through the circulation and bind to ACE2 receptors in these other parts of the body…… that not only damages the microvascular endothelium but also induces the production of many pro-inflammatory cytokines”.  He cited evidence that the brain tissues of those that died from COVID were found to have pseudovirions (spike, envelope, and membrane proteins) without viral RNA, in the endothelia of cerebral microvessels, and that injecting just the S1 spike subunit in mice led to neurologic signs.[5]

5. On Jan 26, 2021, Dr. Hooman Noorchashm emailed the FDA regulators, Pfizer leaders and the press, to deliver “a warning and a, nearly certain, prognostication”, that anyone who has had a recent COVID infection (irrespective of whether they are symptomatic or convalescent) can be expected to have viral antigens in the endothelial lining of their blood vessels, and that vaccine triggered antigen specific immune response will target those antigens, and therefore those tissues, and cause tissue inflammation and damage.[6]  In other words, the vaccines will cause vasculature damage and blood clots in the lungs, as well as damage in the vasculature of the brain, heart, liver, kidney etc., anywhere residual viral antigens from a recent infection may be found.

It's relevant with regard to what Dr. Noorchashm is warning about, to note that Pfizer's clinical trial protocol (on page 41) explicitly excluded anyone who has had COVID-19 from enrolment.[7]

6. Another point specifically about the mRNA and DNA vaccines encoding the spike protein, is raised by Dr. Sucharit Bhakdi, who was for over 2 decades the head of the Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Mainz, and Editor in Chief of Medical Microbiology and Immunology. 

He warned that a large part of the injected mRNA or DNA-containing nanoparticle packets encoding the spike protein will reach local lymph nodes, and through there, into blood circulation.  In the lymph nodes, when they’re taken up by lymphocytes which then express the spike protein, those cells will be targeted for destruction by other lymphocytes, (likely accounting for the white blood cell depletion mentioned in #1 above).  The lymphocytes thus activated will multiply and swarm out of the lymph nodes to seek out more S protein antigen.  They’ll attack any muscle cells where the S protein is presented (muscle swelling, pain).[12]

The nanoparticles that get into the bloodstream will be trapped there.  Some will fuse with blood cells, but most will be taken up by endothelial cell lining the smallest of veins where blood flows really slowly.  The expression and presentation of the S protein by these microvascular endothelial cells attracts and activates platelets, which induces clotting.  These cells also produce trash during spike protein production, which he says will be placed outside the cell, and attracts killer lymphocytes to attack the presenting endothelial cells, damaging the vascular lining, causing inflammation, and clotting.[12]

7. Many have been pointing out from the beginning, the very real danger of Antibody Dependent Enhancement of Disease (ADE), that any SARS-CoV-2 vaccine may cause.  All attempts to develop a vaccine against the closest human coronavirus, SARS-CoV, had failed in the past two decades, when vaccinated animal models got more severe disease and died, upon challenge with the actual virus.  All SARS-CoV-2 vaccines clinical trials have simply not had enough observation time to allow such a deadly consequence to become apparent, before the vaccine rollouts were rushed worldwide – and we’re already seeing the beginning of the onslaught! [13-15]

8. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has also been found to contain high sequence similarity to 4 human proteins essential for embryonic development, including Syncytin-1 and Syncytin-2, since February 2020.[16]  This lead Dr. Wolfgang Wodarg and Dr. Michael Yeadon (Pfizer's former chief scientific officer) to write an urgent petition on Dec 1, 2020, to the European Medicines Agency, to halt the vaccine rollout due to the possibility that antibodies against the S protein in vaccinated women may attack these proteins, preventing the formation of a placenta, and rendering them infertile.[17]  Like all the other warnings, it was completely ignored.

9. Yet another treachery with the spike protein is its potential ability to cause prion disease, both by the protein[45], and by the mRNA for it contained in Pfizer and Moderna vaccines[46]. Here’s a lengthy summery of these two papers.[47]

10. As if all that isn’t bad enough, some scientists (e.g., Dr. Judy Mikovits) have stated that vaccinated people may shed microRNAs (miRNA) derived from the genetic vaccines, which could explain the many adverse health effects that unvaccinated people around those vaccinated are reporting (especially many women reporting abnormal and extremely heavy menses, even spontaneous abortions).  She says these miRNAs can spread through air, and easily taken in by another person, which is part of our normal process of genetic material exchange with our environment.[18]

11. Here's yet another way that making our own cells express the spike protein via the genetic vaccines can lead to disaster: causing cells expressing the spike protein and cells that have ACE2 receptor on their surface to conglomerate, forming something called a "multinucleated syncytia":

"Proteins that mediate fusion between viral and cellular membranes can in some cases also do so between cells that express the viral fusion protein and those that express the viral receptor. For instance, cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160 can form multinucleated syncytia with cells expressing the HIV-1 receptors CD4 and CCR5". The 2003 Nature paper went on to demonstrate that "293T cells transfected with ACE2, but not those transfected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 receptors, formed multinucleated syncytia with cells expressing S protein (of SARS-CoV-1)".[19]

12. A peer reviewed paper from MIT published in Apr 2021,[20] confirmed their earlier pre-print version published Dec13, 2020,[21] that “Reverse-transcribed SARS-CoV-2 RNA can integrate into the genome of cultured human cells and can be expressed in patient-derived tissues”.  Their results are “consistent with a LINE1 retrotransposon mediated, target-primed reverse transcription and retroposition mechanism.”  Even though with infection of SARS-CoV-2 virus, they detected only subgenomic sequences derived mainly from the 3′ end of the viral genome integrated into the DNA of the host cell, in the case of mRNA vaccines, given that we’re told the S protein gene is the only gene encoded by the mRNA, which by default is near the 3’ end, and was given a poly(A) tail and various other features to stabilize it, and given that tens of billions of copies of this mRNA are injected in one dose, it seems to me that there’s a good chance similar reverse transcription and retrotransposition of the S protein gene - the MOST PATHOGENIC gene of this entire virus - could really occur, as many scientists have warned from the beginning.  Once integrated into the genome, the host could express the S protein in the long term, which would trigger persistent autoimmune response, causing attack on the cells it has integrated into.

13. A paper published on May 20, 2021 found detectable levels of the spike protein in general circulation in 3 of 13 Moderna vaccine recipients, up to 29 days following the first dose.  The S1 subunit of the spike protein, previously found to be significantly associated with disease severity in COVID-19 patients, were found in general circulation in 11 of the 13 vaccine recipients, detectable up to 14 days after the first dose.[22]  This strongly supports many of the above hypothesized mechanisms of how the vaccine induced spike protein may cause harm.

14. I came across this wonderful, peer reviewed, comprehensive review article titled “Worse Than the Disease? Reviewing Some Possible Unintended Consequences of the mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19”.[23]  Two particularly disturbing things they discussed, among many, are:

- Vaccine shedding.  “…there is a plausible process by which it could occur through the release of exosomes from dendritic cells in the spleen containing misfolded spike proteins, in complex with other prion reconformed proteins. These exosomes can travel to distant places. It is not impossible to imagine that they are being released from the lungs and inhaled by a nearby person. Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, have been detected in sputum, mucus, epithelial lining fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in association with respiratory diseases (Lucchetti et al., 2021).”  They also discussed how, as the internet has recently discovered, that Pfizer’s clinical trial protocol implied that they anticipated the possibility of secondary exposure to the vaccine, and that they even suggested two levels of indirect exposure (i.e., if A is indirectly exposed to B who is indirectly exposed to C who has received the vaccine, the vaccine might actually affect A as well).

- An extremely disturbing scenario they described, is illustrated by the example of Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD).

They wrote: “A unique characteristic of BVD is that the virus can cross the placenta of an infected pregnant dam. This can result in the birth of a calf which carries intra-cellular viral particles which it mistakes as `self.’ Its immune system refuses to recognize the virus as a foreign invasion, and, as a result, the calf sheds the virus in large quantities throughout its life, potentially infecting the entire herd. It has become a widespread practice to identify such carrier calves and cull them from the herd in an attempt to curtail infection (Khodakaram-Tafti & Farjanikish, 2017).

It seems plausible that a dangerous situation may arise in the future where a woman receives an mRNA vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 and then conceives a child shortly thereafter. The sperm would be free to take up RNA-embedded liposomes from the vaccine and convert them to DNA using LINE-1. They would then produce plasmids containing the code for the spike protein which would be taken up by the fertilized egg through the process described above. The infant that is born is then potentially unable to mount antibodies to the spike protein because their immune system considers it to be `self.’ Should that infant get infected with SARS-CoV-2 at any time in its lifespan, its immune system would not mount a defense against the virus, and the virus would presumably be free to multiply in the infant’s body without restraint. The infant would logically become a super-spreader in such a situation.



15. According to Kanduc & Shoenfeld, originally published online in Apr 2020,[24] ‘Pulmonary surfactant plays a fundamental role in the physiology of ventilation by lowering the surface tension at the respiratory air-liquid interface within the alveoli. Excessively high values of surface tension would lead to alveolar collapse thus making ventilation and gas exchange impossible.’  Human surfactant proteins and associated regulators are extremely important for lung function.

They found that SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein shares 24 pentapeptides (5 amino acid long segments, or 5-mers) with human surfactant proteins, out of which 13 were found in 52 SARS-CoV-derived immunoreactive epitopes in the database (epitopes are exposed parts of an antigen that get recognized by the immune system - so these 13 pentapeptides are known to be in immunogenic parts of SARS-CoV spike).  This is compared to 19 pentapeptides shared between human coronavirus HCoV-229E and the same collection of human surfactant proteins analyzed, out of which only 1 was found to be hosted in only one HCoV-derived epitopeImmune cross-reaction against the body’s own surfactant proteins would explain why SARS-CoV-2 can cause so much more lung pathology compared to HCoV-229E which causes common cold and mild infections.

Amazingly, they also analyzed Pneumocystis carinii, a fungus responsible for aggressive and highly deadly Pneumocystis pneumonia in immune compromised patients, and found that it contains 17 of the 24 pentapeptides shared between SARS-CoV-2 and surfactant molecules!  Did the creators of SARS-CoV-2 bioweapon borrow some of these autoimmunogenic peptide elements from Pneumocystis carinii in hopes of beefing up the virus’ ability to impair respiratory function by causing an autoimmune attack on one’s own surfactant proteins?

Importantly, the authors warned against using vaccines based on entire SARS-CoV-2 antigens, which would in itself trigger autoimmune attacks.  THIS WAS IN APR 2020!  Yet, their advice was ignored by vaccine manufacturers and regulatory agencies, and the criminal vaccines were “developed” and unleashed upon the world’s population.

(In fact, even long before that, other researchers[25] have cautioned that before considering a protein as a vaccine antigen, special care should be taken in analyzing the sequence of tissue cross-reactive epitopes in order to avoid possible future side effects and autoimmune diseases.)

16. An article first published online in May 2020[26], found that 13 out of 50 human tissue antigens they tested cross reacted with a monoclonal antibody against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (Fig 1 of the article), and again warned against using the full length spike protein for vaccines.

17. A Sep 2020 article titled “Molecular mimicry between SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and mammalian proteomes: implications for the vaccine”[27], found that SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein shares surprisingly many 6-mer and 7-mer peptides with humans, mice and to a lesser extent, rats, and not to other animals tested.  See Fig 1 in article.

They remarked: “A massive heptapeptide sharing exists between SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and human proteins. Such a peptide commonality is unexpected and highly improbable from a mathematical point of view” “Likewise, the proteomes of the three human coronaviruses HKU1, 229E, and OC43, which were used as viral controls, have no or only a few peptides in common with the spike glycoprotein. In this regard, it seems that the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein is phenetically more similar to humans and mice than to its coronavirus “cousins”.

“Finally, this study once more reiterates the concept that only vaccines based on minimal immune determinants unique to pathogens and absent in the human proteome might offer the possibility of safe and efficacious vaccines…” – a point resolutely ignored by the developers of ALL COVID-19 vaccines!

18. An April 2021 article titled “Divergent and self-reactive immune responses in the CNS [central nervous system] of COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms”[28], found that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from an individual with COVID-19 target both viral and neural antigens, including one mAb that reacted to spike protein and neural tissue. CSF immunoglobulin G (IgG) from 5 of 7 patients with COVID-19 who had neurological symptoms showed antineural reactivity.  This study “suggests a role of autoimmunity in neurologic sequelae of COVID-19”, and yet again shows why using full-length spike sequence in vaccines is insane.

19. A July 2020 paper[29] proposed that it’s the binding of SARS-COV-2 spike protein with soluble ACE-2 (also called serum or plasma ACE-2, the ACE-2 enzyme ectodomain that has been cleaved from the cell surface, in a process called shedding, that occurs more frequently in hypertension and heart disease patients), that triggers autoimmune attacks on the ACE-2 (and possibly on related ACE), and the pulmonary vasculature damage because of dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin axis, as well as the subsequent severe course of disease and multi-organ attack in some COVID-19 patients.  The authors further developed their theory in a May 2021 paper[30], following additional related information that came to light recently.  Soluble ACE2 was found[31] to be the highest ranked predictor of total death or cardiometabolic diseases in general, and the serum of critically ill COVID-19 patients was recently found[32] to contain higher levels of soluble ACE-2.

If they’re right, then injecting the population with vaccines that put tens of billions of copies of the very protein that binds the plasma ACE-2 and could trigger autoimmune chain of events, would mean that the very people with high plasma ACE-2 levels and at higher risk of a severe COVID-19 infection, are being directly given the spike protein to trigger the very same reactions, bypassing the need for an infection!



20. An article originally published in Apr 2021, in the New England Journal of Medicine, titled “Pathologic Antibodies to Platelet Factor 4 after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccination”[33], linked blood clotting in AstraZeneca's COVID vaccine recipients to a pathologic immune reaction against Platelet Factor 4 (PF4).

The vaccine recipients presenting with thrombosis (blood clots) and thrombocytopenia (deficiency of platelets in the blood) syndrome showed “striking clinical similarities”[34] to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), a known and serious complication that could result occasionally from the use of heparin (an anticoagulant that is also produced by the body) to treat or prevent thrombosis.  In the case of HIT, the use of heparin can trigger the generation of antibodies against heparin-PF4 complex.  In a subset of these patients, the binding of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies to platelet-associated PF4 produces receptor cross-linking, which strongly activates platelets, leading to blood clots.  A further subset of those patients presents clinical symptoms of thrombosis and thrombocytopenia.[35]

In the case of AstraZeneca vaccine recipients that suffered thrombosis/thrombocytopenia, 22 out of 23 (“mostly young, generally healthy”) patients tested positive for antibodies against PF4, suggesting a similar mechanism of autoimmune induced platelet activation that triggered blood clotting.[33]  Strikingly, “(a)ll the patients had d-dimer levels at presentation that were much higher than would be expected in patients with acute venous thromboembolism and are typically seen in patients with cancer.

“The clinical features of this vaccine-induced syndrome are more typical of those seen in patients with HIT who have early reexposure to heparin, including severe thrombocytopenia, aggressive thrombosis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.”

“Identification of the mechanism through which the vaccine could trigger the formation of these pathologic antibodies would require further study.”

21. In a June 11 interview[48] of Dr. Peter McCullough by Reiner Fuellmich, Dr. McCullough said the spike protein appears to cause a unique form of thrombosis, which is partly hemagglutination, where the spike protein attaches to sialic acid residues on red blood cells – normally RBC aren’t involved in coagulation, but here they are.  He also said that Italian doctors had shown that when the oxygen saturation goes down in the lungs, it was due to microthrombosis (micro-clotting) – in other words, it was micro-clotting in the blood vessels that lead to oxygen deficiency, not the impairment of lung function by viral infection as generally thought, in the patients that these Italian doctors observed.

In the same interview Dr. McCullough also mentioned that in some women, the breasts become so inflamed after the COVID-19 “vaccines”, that radiologists couldn’t read the mammogram, and Dr. McCullough’s hospital had to change mammography criteria to deal with that!



22. A December 2020 article in the journal Science[36], discussed how PEG, a component of the vaccine nanoparticles, could trigger anaphylactic reactions in some people:

As much as 72% of people have at least some antibodies against PEGs, according to a 2016 study led by Samuel Lai, a pharmaco-engineer at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, presumably as a result of exposure to cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. About 7% have a level that may be high enough to predispose them to anaphylactic reactions, he found.

In 1999, while working at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Szebeni described a new type of drug-induced reaction he dubbed complement activation-related pseudoallergy (CARPA), a nonspecific immune response to nanoparticle-based medicines, often PEGylated, that are mistakenly recognized by the immune system as viruses.

Full text of the Samuel Lai 2016 article:



23. A twitter thread summed up some studies suggesting a possible mechanism how the Spike protein can cause neurodegenerative illnesses and behavioral/cognitive issues[37].

Monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and MAO-B) are enzymes that degrade neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE), maintaining a fine balance.  Through docking and molecular dynamic simulations, Hok et al found that the Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds to MAO Enzymes, with an affinity for MAO enzymes COMPARABLE to that for its ACE2 receptor.[38]  In other words, the spike protein creates an artificial EXCESS of these neurotransmitters (and a misbalance of them), by binding to the enzymes that would normally degrade them.

A 2006 study found that the immediate effects of known MAO inhibitors appear to be psychostimulant-like, as they substitute for the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine.[39]

MAO inhibitors also increase serotonin. A 2019 NIH study found that increased extracellular serotonin in the ventral pallidum (VP) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) also may contribute to reward and may underlie cognitive deficits observed in users of cocaine.[40] (Can people get addicted to these “vaccines” after frequent shots?)

Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies support an association between monoamine oxidase-A brain levels and aggression.[41]

Histamine is also a monoamine, whose breakdown is inhibited by the downregulation of MAO. According to this page about histamine, “Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme that breaks down N-methylhistamine to N-methylimidazole acetic acid. SNPs in the gene that encodes for this enzyme can cause histamine levels to stay high rather than be degraded.”[42]  Interestingly, a paper in Inflammation Research said “Reports that the over-the-counter histamine H2 receptor antagonist famotidine could help treat …COVID-19… appeared from April 2020.”[43]



24. An excellent June 2022 paper with Dr. Peter A.McCullough as the senior author, titled “Innate immune suppression by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations: The role of G-quadruplexes, exosomes, and MicroRNAs” reviews evidence and details the many mechanisms of how the COVID-19 “vaccines” are able to suppress innate immunity, and cause cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and a host of other conditions.[44]

They cited a study on how the spike transfected cells release exosomes loaded with microRNAs (miRNA) that suppress USP33 and IRF9 levels in distant cells/tissues, while activating a range of pro-inflammatory gene transcripts.  IRF9 is a interferon regulatory factor, critical in interferon (IFN) mediated innate immunity.

They cited a Chinese study that found volunteers who received the inactivated whole SARS-CoV-2 “vaccine” had increased NF-κB signaling and reduced type I IFN responses 28 days after “vaccination”.

They cited studies that found the spike protein is able to both directly inhibit DNA repair in transfected cells (with implications on cancer, and adaptive immunity which is dependent on NHEJ recombination), and indirectly by changing the miRNA content of exosomes released by transfected cells, thereby inhibiting DNA repair mechanisms in distant cells and tissues that take up these exosomes.

They also showed how the methods used by mRNA “vaccine” designers to stabilize the spike mRNA, including the high GC content, and especially the potential Guanine quadruplexes (pG4s), may be the culprit in initiating prion-like aggregation and neurological disease onset, as well as in causing cancer; etc. etc.)


So indeed, the spike protein that the vaccines contain or encode for, is alone sufficient to cause COVID symptoms (and deaths in severe cases), and have numerous medium to long term potential serious consequences.  Only criminal governments would have rushed it ahead and imposed it on the world with utter deceit.














Video interview:






































Maggie Zhou received her PhD in genetics from the University of Wisconsin - Madison in 1997, and worked as a computational biologist for a number of years.  She is currently an independent seeker of truth.


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